The Lincoln Highway Near Canton

 By Jim Ross

Beautiful brick alignments of the Lincoln Highway, such as the one pictured above left, still exist east of Canton, Ohio. Originally paved in about 1919 -20, many sections of road were abandoned within 20 years because of the rough terrain on which the original road was laid. The section this article will concentrate is the 11 mile Minerva to East Canton stretch.

This is part of the Baywood section just southeast of Roberstville. It is a stretch just under 3 miles long, and about half of it still has exposed brick.   (click to enlarge)

When the Lincoln Highway Association announced on September 1, 1913 that the route would run from Times Square in New York to Lincoln Park in San Francisco, cities and states along the proposed route were ecstatic for the recognition and commerce about to come their way. Those not on the route continued to fight for inclusion.

One battle for inclusion on the route was fought between the residents of northern and southern Paris Township in southeast Stark County. The northern residents of the township, and civic leaders from nearby towns such as Alliance, campaigned to change the planned route to follow what is now Route 172 through New Franklin and Paris. They pointed out that the road was wider, straighter, and better maintained than the proposed route to the south, Minerva to East Canton. The Lincoln Highway Association was not swayed, and the Association's president, Frank Seiberling of Akron, pointed out that there was considerable pressure on him from his town to move the highway even further north through Summit County.

The picture on the right was taken on the Robertsville to East Canton stretch. Lincoln Highway Collection, Transportation History Collection, Special Collections Library, University of Michigan.  An interesting comparison of today's (still brick) road can be found in our Then and Now section

The Lincoln Highway was built with private and local funds because the Federal Government was not yet convinced of the value of such roads; rail was still the way to move people and freight over long distances. But those who had something to gain from such a route, such as Sieberling, founder of Goodyear Tire, and Henry B. Joy of Packard Motor Car Company donated large sums of money. It is interesting to note that Henry Ford was not interested in the highway despite the urging of friends Sieberling, Joy, and Thomas Edison.

The Lincoln Highway entered Stark County on what is now known as US 30 in Minerva. It continued west to Robertsville, Baywood Section East Canton and Canton on or near what is now known as Lincoln Street. Once inside Canton, it continued on toward Massillon on Tuscarawas Street, entering Massillon as Lincoln Way, and leaving the county near East Greenville as Lincoln Way again.

One of the most interesting sections of the old Lincoln Highway in the United States is the section between Minerva and East Canton. Most of the road we use today to travel between the two towns was not a part of the original Lincoln Highway. The original route in this section was a narrow twisting road built on farm lanes over hills and sometimes through woods. Parts of the 1913 dirt alignment, and the 1919 brick improvement can be found today.

In retrospect, those who called the Minerva to East Canton route inferior to the New Franklin to East Canton proposal were correct. By 1917, the Lincoln Highway in Ohio had 72 miles of brick pavement, 166 miles of other hard surfaces, and 18 miles of dirt. At least three miles of that dirt was in this section.

The original Minerva to East Canton leg was used from about 1913 to about 1940, but as cars became bigger and faster, the width and tight turns of the road became intolerable. Attempts were made in places to uproot the brick and spread them further apart to widen the road; but even this wasn't enough, and a whole new road was constructed with Federal funds between the two villages. With the construction of the new road, much of the original highway was relegated to residential street status, leaving us years later with several antique stretches of road.

By 1928, most of the Lincoln Highway was paved the length of the continent, and on September 1 of that year, the Boy Scouts of America marked the entire route with concrete highway posts about a mile apart. The state of Ohio had 241 of these markers, and only three of them can still be found at or near their original locations. One of the original markers is in East Canton on the south side of Nassau Street one half block west of Cedar Street. Another Stark County marker is in Minerva on the southeast corner of Lincoln Way and Market Street, however, it's original location is not known. Marker in East Canton

An afternoon exploring the road between East Canton and Minerva is worth the time for the historical minded, but it should be remembered that parts of the road are on private property and should not be trespassed, and starting and stopping on a busy highway such as this could be dangerous. A good tour of this section might begin at the mile marker in East Canton and end with a visit at the mile marker in Minerva.

There are two 'must see' sections of the highway for road enthusiasts. The first is a section of Cindell Street. Cindell It is just west of Sam Krabill Avenue and is still brick. The original road east of Sam Krabill is on private property.

Photo by Jerry Smith of Robertsville, Ohio


A more impressive section begins in Robertsville near the center of the town on Applehill Avenue. Follow this road south from the main highway to see what This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. (author of A History and Road Guide of the Lincoln Highway in Ohio, calls "perhaps the best remnant in Ohio." Applehill turns into Baywood Street and comes to the highest part of this highway in Stark County. From this ridge road you will be traveling a brick road with some of the best views in the area. The road descends the hill crossing railroad tracks at the bottom. Note that the brick at the bottom of the hill is still painted with dividing lines and rail crossing warnings. Rail Crossing.

The picture to the right remains the favorite of the author.  It was used in "Ford Restorer" in April 2001 and several advertisements in Ohio Magazine.

Just east of the intersection of Route 30 and Paris Avenue the old highway was on the left, now on private property. As you travel this stretch, note the telephone poles on the north side of the road. The original road ran along side of them, and you should also note the concrete culvert in front of the white barn. 

A tour might end up at the mile marker at the intersection of state routes 30 and 183 in Minerva. You may find of interest the 1910's gas station near this corner which now serves as a gift shop. There is another concrete mile marker that has only recently been restored to this spot when the a family purchased a nearby farm and discovered it on their property.

By the end of 1928 the Federal Highway Commission decided not to refer to highways by names and this part of the Lincoln Highway simply became US Route 30. Through out the 1930's the Minerva to East Canton section was improved to it's present condition and the original superhighway of brick was retired for use as back streets or removed altogether.

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BY THE NUMBERS
A CHRONOLOGY OF THE FEDERAL HIGHWAYS IN OHIO

Part two of this series is also included, featuring the history of state routes and their numbering in Ohio.
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November 18, 1925--A report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Bureau of Public Roads was approved on this date by the Secretary of Agriculture. Many maps dated 1926 show these tentative routes, including the Ohio Department of Highways (ODH) map of that year. These are the numbers of the proposed routes which were in Ohio: 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 40 42 50 52 127.

Click to view 1926 Ohio Department of Transportation map oddity.

An oddity on the 1926 ODH map shows US30 shields in two places east of Canton: one on the main road west of Minerva; another on the road into Pennsylvania from East Palestine. Unless one of the shields is erroneously located, the route east of Lisbon must have been a horrible one. No shield is shown in the vicinity of East Liverpool, where the route was first signed in the field.

A route numbered 121 between Cleveland and Lisbon was not shown on the ODH map and was apparently dropped from the Bureau's proposal earlier in 1926. Most of the route locations as described in the report would be recognized on Ohio maps well into the 1970s, with the following exceptions:

US20 was the original transcontinental route ending at Astoria, Oregon, not US30. The proposed terminus for US30 in the 1925 plan was at Salt Lake City. This would change by the time the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) approved the plan.

Also, the first version of US127 terminated at Toledo, but in 1932 was designated for a new route to Cincinnati. The original US127 was renumbered as US223.

November 11, 1926--AASHO accepts a modified plan for the first federal highway system. Numbers in use for Ohio are as follows: 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 40 42 50 52 127 322 422

US322 and US422 were addenda to the 1925 plan. US22 was originally proposed to terminate at Cleveland, but was modified to terminate at Cambridge. The Cleveland endpoint was accomplished by two three-digit branch roads which diverged from US22 in Pennsylvania.

Relative to Ohio, the other proposed routes had no drastic changes, although many routes were lengthened beyond her borders. US30 became the route of the Lincoln Highway through much of Ohio, but not nearly as much as one might think. US30 took the southern route across Ashland County, through Jeromesville and Hayesville, and also varied from the traditional Lincoln Highway by reviving the old main market route through Galion, Marion, Kenton, and Lima. Another variation was between East Liverpool and California Hollow Junction in Columbiana County.

The Lincoln Highway crossed four of these original federal routes: 
21 at Massillon; 42 at Mansfield; 23 at Upper Sandusky; 25 at Beaverdam.

Interestingly, US30 was the longest of all the new federal routes, traversing 3472 miles from Atlantic City, New Jersey to Astoria, Oregon. It was rivaled only by US40 (3205 miles from Atlantic City to Oakland, California) and US50 (2856 miles from Annapolis, Maryland to Sacramento, California). US20 in its original form terminated at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, only 2542 miles west of Boston. Isn't it odd that two transcontinental routes started at Atlantic City?

Also fascinating is the fact that Ohio had a nice straight run of numbers—20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25.  For what it is worth, Ohio could boast of having the longest "straight" well into the early history of federal numbers. Later, several new or extended routes gave Texas the right to that claim with an impressive "hand" of numbers from 79 through 85.

1929—The first new number to show up in Ohio's federal scheme was US250, which intersected US30 at Wooster. Although its original termini were at Grafton, West Virginia and Norwalk, Ohio, it was later extended to Richmond, Virginia and Sandusky, Ohio.

Soon to become the intersection of US 250 and US 30.  Lincoln Highway Collection, Transportation History Collection, Special Collections Library, University of Michigan.

1931—The route of US127 between Lansing, Michigan and Toledo, Ohio was renumbered as US223, thus rendering it a branch of US23 instead of US27. A new US127 was designated between Lansing and Cincinnati, crossing the Lincoln Highway at Van Wert.

Also in 1931, US30 between Mansfield and Delphos was split into two routes of equal importance, US30-N and US30-S. This was a carryover from the early days of the Lincoln Highway, when Marion interests, miffed by Henry Joy's quick-trigger 1913 rerouting, created what would become the Harding Highway. US30-N put Bucyrus and Upper Sandusky on an east-west federal route for the first time. Although AASHO despised them, compromising suffixes like these were nothing new. In fact, the original 30-N and 30-S numberings had existed for four years in western Wyoming.

In Ohio, north and south suffixes were in use for US50, and soon there would be a US20-N (later US20-A). Only US40 seemed to escaped the suffix problem for the major east-west routes crossing Ohio.

1932—Three new federal routes show up for the first time on the ODH map of 1932. Routes 6, 36, and 62 are added. Most significant is US6, which meandered from Cape Cod to Colorado. Eventually this route would reach Long Beach, California, traversing 14 states and 3517 miles, overtaking US30 as the longest federal highway. The only other routes that passed through fourteen states were US1, US40, and US50. US30 passes through only twelve states.

In later years, US30 would similarly drop behind US20 and US50 in terms of mileage. Those routes were extended west to the Pacific Coast at Newport, Oregon and San Francisco, California, respectively, and US50 eventually reached the Atlantic at Ocean City, Maryland.
US6 is known as The Grand Army Of The Republic Highway, and is often marked as such in Indiana. It is rare to see such a sign in Ohio, where it is not within state standards to have a "named road" sign displayed on a numbered route.

US36 in its original form was between Indianapolis, Indiana and Colby, Kansas. In its longest, and frustratingly meandering form, it stretched from Cadiz, Ohio to Denver, Colorado, tracing much of the corridor of the old Pikes Peak Ocean-To-Ocean Highway.

At Canton, US62 became the seventh federal route to cross the Lincoln Highway and US30. It traversed 2289 miles from Niagara Falls, New York to El Paso, Texas.

1933—Another new route appeared on the Ohio map the following year. US68 finally escaped the borders of Kentucky, bridging the Ohio River at Maysville, Kentucky before continuing north to Toledo. It crossed the Lincoln Highway at the small community of Williamstown. This route followed in the footsteps of a proposed US125, which would have been a branch of US25 between Findlay, Ohio and Maysville.

1934—Yet another new route was created across Ohio, this time as a branch of US24. US224 was designated between New Castle, Pennsylvania and Huntington, Indiana. It was the ninth route to have a junction with US30 in Ohio. This meeting was at Van Wert, where it shared the path down Washington Street with US127. Thus, Van Wert was the only Lincoln Highway town in Ohio where two federal routes crossed the Lincoln Highway.

1935—For the third consecutive year, a single federal route was added to the federal scheme in Ohio. US35 cuts a diagonal across southwestern Ohio between Charleston, West Virginia and Michigan City, Indiana, and crosses the Lincoln Highway in the middle of nowhere in Starke County, Indiana.

1938—The last federal route to be marked in Ohio was US33, another diagonal route which was more or less parallel with US35. Its termini were Richmond, Virginia and St. Joseph, Michigan, and its junction with US30 is at Fort Wayne, Indiana, where US27 also crosses.

1970s—As the construction of the main routes of the Interstate Highway System neared completion, many of the federal routes became redundant, or were rendered of secondary importance. Because much of US21 and US25 had been superseded in Ohio by I-77 and I-75, respectively, those federal numbers were dropped from the scheme. State Routes 21 and 25 are now the shortened reminders of their past.

Between Mansfield and Delphos, the shorter US30-N corridor was the one improved to become a four-lane highway. Thus, the "cumbersome compromise" of suffixes was finally dropped in November 1973, with US30-N becoming US30 and US30-S becoming State Route 309. Another three-digit number which serves as a reminder of its US30 heritage is State Route 430 near Mansfield.

After US50-N became State Route 550 in southern Ohio, all of the old suffixes had finally been eliminated with the exception of US20-A, which survives west of Toledo. The US30-A designation at Dalton is a mystery of sorts—it shows up with a shield for the first time on the ODH map of 1962, although the Dalton bypass had been built for about ten years.

HERE ARE SOME PARTICULARS FOR OHIO'S ORIGINAL FEDERAL HIGHWAYS (1927)

20 Boston, Massachusetts to Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming—2542 miles
21 Cleveland, Ohio to Yemassee, South Carolina—793 miles
22 Elizabeth, New Jersey to Cambridge, Ohio—490 miles
23 Mackinaw City, Michigan to Portsmouth, Ohio—625 miles
24 Pontiac, Michigan to Kansas City, Missouri—771 miles
25 Port Huron, Michigan to North Augusta, Georgia—792 miles

TRIVIA:  Note that in the original federal scheme, two-digit roads ending in 1 were the major north-south routes, not those ending in 5. Although US25 eventually stretched 1151 miles between Port Austin, Michigan and Brunswick, Georgia, it was considered secondary in its original form to routes such as US21 and US31.

27 Cheboygan, Michigan to Cincinnati, Ohio—516 miles
30 Atlantic City, New Jersey to Astoria, Oregon—3472 miles (crosses 12 states)
40 Atlantic City, New Jersey to Oakland, California—3205 miles (crosses 14 states)
42 Cleveland, Ohio to Cincinnati, Ohio—243 miles
50 Annapolis, Maryland to Sacramento, California—2856 miles (crosses 14 states)
52 Huntington, West Virginia to Fowler, Indiana—343 miles

MINUTIA:  The only federal route in Ohio that terminates in an international boundary is US52, which now ends in the US/Canada line at Portal, North Dakota. Many routes terminate at coastal cities, but this is the only route which ends at our national border.

127 Lansing, Michigan to Toledo, Ohio—77 miles
322 Water Street, Pennsylvania to Cleveland, Ohio—226 miles
422 Ebensburg, Pennsylvania to Cleveland, Ohio—203 miles

In 1912, the State of Ohio's Highway Department published their first map showing numbered roads. That numbering system was the first of five different systems that have been used in Ohio since that time. Part one highlighted the federal numbering system. This part will discuss the other four numbering systems which have been or are being used in Ohio.

The 1912 highway map of Ohio was titled "Map Of Ohio Showing Inter-County Highways" and identified 444 inter-county highways such as ICH #12, known as Cleveland-East Liverpool Road, and ICH #146, known as Mansfield-Wooster Road. Most of the inter-county routes had the character of the latter, simply connecting two cities in adjacent counties. Only several of these routes came close to crossing the entire state. The most notable exceptions were ICH #1, which was the route of the old National Road, and ICH #7, the Ohio River Road.

At the same time that the inter-county highways came into use, a network of Main Market Routes was designated by authority of the state legislators. These routes did cross the state, and in a grid pattern similar to the federal network of highways that would be marked about fifteen years later. More than twenty of these market routes were eventually added to the official state highway map, including Main Market Route No. 3, which supposedly was to be the route of the Lincoln Highway in Ohio. However, the imperfect overlaps rendered here and there by Henry Joy became the source of more than one headache—not only with the seemingly-slighted citizens of Marion and Kenton, but also in Paris Township in Stark County. These stories are more completely told in A History And Road Guide Of The Lincoln Highway In Ohio.

It appears that the system of market routes was used only until 1921, because it disappears on the state map of 1922. Curiously, the market routes went through a renumbering in 1920, and for a brief time, the route of the Lincoln Highway was generally the same as a new Main Market Route No. 2. Other market routes would be familiar to road fans as the future corridors of the Dixie Highway and 3-C Highway, just to name two.

The network of inter-county highways would outlast the main market routes by more than twenty years. It was this set of numbers which first appeared on a state route sign in 1920. Potentially confusing, however, is the fact that the official sign did not show "Inter-County Highway" as part of the text. Instead, the marker had "STATE ROUTE" lettered above the route number, with "OHIO" appearing below. Supposedly the story goes that "INTER-COUNTY HIGHWAY" took up too much space on the sign. This first sign was actually no more than black and white paint on a utility pole. By the way, there is no evidence that any market route was ever signed—it appears that the number was merely a paper designation.

The state route/inter-county language is again potentially confusing because in 1923, Ohio's third system of numbered highways was designated. This system provided the original framework of the same state route system which survives today. The confusion lies in the fact that the Department of Highways continued to use the old inter-county highway numbers for office purposes until 1947. Thus, all highway projects in that era are referenced to the inter-county highway number (and state route number of 1920-1922) and not the new state route number established in 1923. This is important to consider when researching old bridge and roadway plans. By the time those original numbers were discontinued in 1947, over 1000 inter-county highways had been designated.

Click to view.  The legend of the 1923 map (click left) shows the first Ohio route sign to be fabricated and placed on a post. Although the colors of the sign are not specified here, by 1926 it is known that the signs were black on yellow. In later years, the signs would revert to the black on white which is still the standard today.

With this new system, the total of numbered roads in Ohio was reduced to 223. However, it did not take long for the system to be expanded, for by 1935 and 1936, the highest numbered route on the map was State Route #386. Then, an apparent burst of energy must have struck the highway department. Almost magically, more than 150 new routes appeared on the 1937 map, with numbers ranging in the 500s, 600s, and 700s. Note that only half the available numbers were used here. Many but not all would come into use soon thereafter.

1926 black on yellow state road signs.

It is not known why the 400 series of numbers was skipped. John Simpson, who maintains an impressive web site he calls The Unofficial Ohio State Highways Web Site, speculates that the 400 series was "reserved for a new state freeway or toll road system, much like Ontario's 400 series highways.

Although it is not easily discerned, there does appear to have been some method to the madness of numbering all these state routes. Routes 1 through 10 were definitely the most important routes, as witnessed by the fact that most would soon become routes of the federal highway system. The ten routes were also set apart by having a rectangular "named road" sign above the Ohio shield. The numberings had a mixture of logic and randomness. State Route 1 remained the old National Road, and State Route 7 remained the Ohio River Road, and were the rare exceptions of routes which carried over their previous inter-county numbers. It also made sense that the 3-C Highway (Cleveland/Columbus/Cincinnati) was numbered State Route 3. The route of the Lincoln Highway became State Route 5, the Dixie Highway was State Route 6, and the Harding Highway was State Route 10. State Route 11, which did not carry the auxiliary sign, also crossed the state and formed the backbone of what would become U.S. Route 35.

Lincoln Highway Collection, Transportation History Collection, Special Collections Library, University of Michigan.

Starting with State Route 12, tracing the numbering system becomes a fascinating adventure. It is likely that someone in authority merely sat down, or sat someone down, at a drafting table or desk and laid out the map of what would become the 223 routes. This privileged individual then put numbers on the map in whatever way made the most sense at the time. John Simpson calls it a "clustering" system.

Note that the original State Routes 12 through 16 all radiated from Cleveland. Similarly, Routes 19 through 21 from Columbus. It seems that longer routes from the largest urban areas were given low number priority. Numbers such as 79, 80, and 81 were used for major routes which criss-crossed the state without entering the biggest cities.

At this point in the numbering scheme, it appears that the mapmaker turned his pen to the northeast corner of the state, and commenced to fill in numbers for all the minor routes nearest the state's perimeter. He worked his way around the state in a counter-clockwise direction, starting with numbers in the 80s in the northeast counties. Thus, numbers in the 90s abounded in the north central part of the state, numbers in the 100s in the northwest corner of the state, numbers in the 110s in the west central counties, and so forth. By the time the mapmaker had circled back around to eastern Ohio, he had exhausted all the numbers into the 150s. It appears he then made another pass across the state, filling in the numbers for routes of similar importance which were closer to the center of the state.

It is obvious that by the time the mapmaker reached the 200s, he was labeling the most minor routes and connecting roads. Other minor routes, connectors, and access roads to state parks are prominent in the 300 series. Note the numbering similarities for routes in the vicinity of Indian Lake, Lake Loramie, and Grand Lake St. Marys. As discussed above, numbers in the 500 through 700 series burst onto the 1937 map, but seemingly in a scattershot fashion, although some clustering is evident.

The fourth numbering system effecting Ohio was the first one created by federal government. This was the federal highway system shown on the Ohio map of 1927, and included U.S. Route 30 in the corridor of the Lincoln Highway. Again this is a story more completely told in A History And Road Guide Of The Lincoln Highway In Ohio, but suffice it to say that the first version of U.S. Route 30 did not completely follow the Lincoln Highway route traced by State Route 5. The most notable exception is between Mansfield and Delphos, where the original version of U.S. 30 followed the Harding Highway, putting Galion, Marion, Kenton, and Lima back on a route of national prominence after each had been methodically eliminated from the route of the Lincoln Highway.

The federal numbers for Ohio were more specifically discussed earlier, but it is worth noting that these new numbers forced the state highway department to renumber many of the state routes that appeared on the 1923-1926 maps. It was this renumbering that began the unraveling of whatever order had existed in that state route numbering scheme.

More unraveling would occur as the Interstate Highway System was completed. This system, now almost fifty years old, would be the fifth system of numbers for highways in Ohio. This time, however, the state was slower to make a decision to renumber duplicate routes. Despite the opening of bits and pieces of I-70 and I-75 during the late 1950s, State Routes 70 and 75 retained those designations until 1962.

Today there are more than 550 numbered routes in Ohio. Of these, 22 routes are survivors from the federal highway system, and 21 bear the blue and red interstate shield. Numbers in the 400 and 800 series can now be found on the Ohio map. Numbers in the 400s are generally segments of previous routes which have been replaced by major improvement projects. For example, routes 421, 423, 424, and 430 are all parts of previous federal highways 21, 23, 24, and 30. Numbers in the 800s seem to be the choice for the highway department's newest additions. In 1969, State Route 8 south of Canton was renumbered as State Route 800. Newer numberings such as 807 and 835 imply a relationship with nearby State Route 7 and U.S. Route 35. Other new numbers in the 800 series, including several bridges across the Ohio River, have less obvious ties to previous numberings.

UNOFFICIAL LIST OF THE NAMED AUTOMOBILE TRAILS OF OHIO

Under Construction

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January 2006

PART ONE—ALPHABETICAL LIST

  • Trail names highlighted in yellow are covered by articles on this web site.
  • Trail names in CAPITAL letters are considered transcontinental routes.
  • Other trail names are either of regional importance or entirely within borders of state.
1. 2-C Highway
2. 3-C Highway
3. ATLANTIC-PACIFIC HIGHWAY
4. Belt Line (1 of 2)
5. Belt Line (2 of 2)
6. Benjamin Franklin Highway
7. Blue and Gray Trail
8. Blue Grass Way
9. Canton-Alliance-Pittsburgh Trail
10. Capitol Trail
11. Chicago-Buffalo Highway
12. Cincinnati-Parkersburg Way
13. DIXIE HIGHWAY
14. French Lick Route
15. HARDING HIGHWAY
16. Harrison Trail
17. Hoosier Highway
18. Hoosier Dixie Highway
19. Hub Highway
20. Huntington-Manitou-Culver Trail
21. Industrial Way
22. Lakes to Ocean Highway
23. LINCOLN HIGHWAY
24. Marion-Kenton Trail
25. Muncie-Lima-Fremont Trail
26. NATIONAL OLD TRAILS ROAD
27. Ohio-Indiana-Michigan Way
28. PIKES PEAK OCEAN-TO-OCEAN HIGHWAY
29. Rose Trail
30. Scioto Trail
31. Sherman-Sheridan Trail
32. Shore Road
33. Tecumseh Trail
34. Terre Haute-Columbus-Cincinnati Trail
35. Toledo-Angola-Goshen Trail
36. Toledo-Chicago Pike
37. Toledo-Cleveland-Buffalo Trail
38. VICTORY HIGHWAY
39. Wayne Highway
40. YELLOWSTONE TRAIL


NAMED AUTOMOBILE TRAILS IN OHIO
PART TWO—BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS

1. 2-C Highway
This trail may have been either an inspiration for or a  response to the more famous 3-C Highway (see #2 below). The 2-C Highway was a parallel route, meandering from Columbus to Cleveland by way of Delaware, Mt. Gilead, Mansfield, Ashland, and Medina. Beyond Delaware, the route would have followed the original version of U.S. Route 42.

2. The Three-C Highway
Perhaps the best remembered auto trail contained entirely within the state’s borders, this highway connected Ohio’s three largest cities—Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Several years ago, OHIO Magazine did a nice story which highlighted potential points of interest for travelers on this cross-state highway. Other cities on the route were Wilmington, Washington C.H., Mt. Vernon, Wooster, and Medina. When the first state routes were numbered on the official Ohio highways map of 1923, the 3-C Highway was wisely designated as State Route 3. Unlike most of the original low-numbered state routes—low numbers being 1 through 10, with a standard sign assembly that included both a name sign and a number sign—State Route 3 survives today along much of its original path. Oddly, the state route never became a differently numbered federal highway like many of the others in that elite group of ten.

3. ATLANTIC-PACIFIC HIGHWAY
This auto trail seems to be a late entry to the list of transcontinental routes. Dave Schul’s auto trails web site has its termini at New York City and Los Angeles, with intermediate cities including Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. Hal Meeks, in his On the Road to Yellowstone book, has an eastern terminus at Norfolk, Virginia, on a route too far south to touch the aforementioned three cities. It either case, it parallels the Midland Trail west of the Appalachians, and parallels the National Old Trails Road beyond the Mississippi River. On my 1926 auto trails map of Ohio, this highway enters the state at Ironton, then follows the north side of the Ohio river to and through Cincinnati. Before reaching Los Angeles, the route passed through St. Louis, Wichita, and Phoenix. In 1923, the Ohio segment of this highway would have been part of the original route of State Route 7, also known as the Ohio River Road—easily the longest numbered route in the state. That portion of this route which was followed by the Atlantic-Pacific Highway would later be renumbered as U.S. Route 52.

4. Belt Line (1 of 2)
This is one of two routes in Ohio that have this name. On my 1922 auto trails map, the route enters the state southwest of Celina (west of Coldwater), then makes its way to and through Columbus, terminating at Logan. The route also passed through Wapakoneta, Bellefontaine, and Marysville. East of Celina, this bears a strong resemblance to a combination of State Route 29 and U.S. Route 33 on the maps of today. Of course, the Belt Line would have been a two-lane route on the predecessors of the relocated four-lane highways of today.

5. Belt Line (2 of 2)
This is the second of the two routes in Ohio that have this name. On my 1922 auto trails map, this version is in the eastern part of the state—leaving easterly from Warren on its way into Pennsylvania.

6. Benjamin Franklin Highway
This highway does not show up on any map in my limited collection. This listing is based on information from Dave Schul’s auto trails web site. According to Dave, the route had termini in Philadelphia and Akron. No intermediate cities are listed. The terminal points of this highway are the same as today’s Interstate Route 76. I have no graphics for the sign of this highway.

7. Blue and Gray Trail
This is another trail for which I have no map confirmation. Again according to Dave Schul, this trail had termini in Columbus, Ohio and Charleston, West Virginia. Based on that description, the route would likely resemble forerunners of U.S. Route 23 and U.S. Route 35. However, no intermediate cities are listed. I have no graphics for the sign of this highway.

8. Blue Grass Way
Based on my 1922 auto trails map, this highway went from Cincinnati to Norwalk, Ohio by way of Lebanon, Xenia, Springfield, Marysville, Marion, Bucyrus, and Willard. Thus, it appears to be a combination of U.S. 42 to Xenia, U.S. 68 to Springfield, and State Route 4 most of the rest of the way.

9. Canton-Alliance-Pittsburgh Trail  (1924 Detour Route)
This route will be easily recognized by Lincoln Highway fans as the notorious 1924 Detour Route, which is often called for in guide books of that era—including A Complete Official Guide of the Lincoln Highway. Louisville, Salem, Columbiana, and East Palestine were waypoints on this popular diversion from the transcontinental route. This trail is more completely covered by an article elsewhere on this web site.  On an obscure map in the 1925 Clason Touring Atlas, this route, at least in Ohio, is labeled as the Governor Cox Highway.

10. Capitol Trail
There appears to have been more than one trail with this name in the United States, but in Ohio, this named trail was between Toledo and Columbus. Cities along the route were Fostoria, Upper Sandusky, Marion, and Delaware. Thus, the route was an early version of today’s U.S. Route 23.

11. Chicago-Buffalo Highway
This route may have been a later combination of numbers 36 and 37 below. However, at Dave Schul’s auto trails web site, the western terminus of the route is given at Kendallville, Indiana. Why it doesn’t go all the way to Chicago is a mystery to me. Perhaps the cartographer did not draw all the pertinent symbols. Buffalo is given as the eastern terminus.

Probably one of the last references to the Chicago-Buffalo Road still being used.  This may also be one of the earliest references to long time Bureau of Public Roads chief Thomas McDonald (1919 to 1953).  Please click for a very large photo.

12. Cincinnati-Parkersburg Way  (U.S. Route 50)
For some reason, this appears on my both my 1921 and 1922 auto trails map only as a route between Cincinnati and Chillicothe, Ohio, with no extension to Parkersburg, West Virginia. Assuming the extension, this course could be followed today by a combination of State Route 28 and U.S. Route 50. However, Dave Schul’s auto trails web site indicates another version of route, on the north side of the Ohio River. Given that was the original route of State Route 7, it may have been the better road in the named trails era, but with all the bends in the river, the route would have been half again as much longer.  An article on the history of this road in Ohio appears elsewhere on this web site.

13. The Dixie Highway
The first north-south transcontinental automobile route across Ohio, the Dixie Highway was actually a network of highways that all funneled to Miami Beach, Florida. Both the highway and the city in the sun were conceived by Carl G. Fisher, whose other big ideas included the Lincoln Highway and the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. In 1923, the route of the Dixie Highway became State Route 6 in Ohio, earning it both a name sign and number sign in the post assembly. This designation lasted only three years, with the posting of the U.S. 25 federal shield. That federal route no longer exists in Ohio, and only a short section of a State Route 25 near Toledo conjures memories of that once significant cross-country number. Interstate Route 75 has become the modern equivalent of Ohio’s branch of the Dixie Highway.

14. French Lick Route
Before basketball icon Larry Bird made this small Indiana community famous as his home town, French Lick had been a popular destination as a health resort along the tracks of the Monon Railroad. The named auto trail route which came later crossed from Indiana into Ohio and terminated in Cincinnati. I have no location for the route in Indiana. I do have a map showing the sign for this route, but it is too small for me to reproduce with confidence (it looks like a guy walking with a bagpipe; I don’t think that’s what it really is).

15. HARDING HIGHWAY (Sept. 1913 Lincoln Highway)
I almost hesitate to call this route a transcontinental route. However, I have a copy of a brochure—published by the Chamber of Commerce in Burlington, Iowa [!], and including a Rand McNally map dated 1931—which implies that the Harding Highway crossed the country from Washington, D.C. to California. There may have been two branches of the highway in California, with endpoints at San Francisco (this one for sure) and Los Angeles (this one a maybe). The brochure focuses on that part of the route between Pittsburgh and Denver, extolling the virtues of “a scenic all-weather highway” that was also “a shorter route east and west.” A related story on this web site covers that portion of the old highway in Ohio between Galion and Lima, via Marion and Kenton. The colorful story of U.S. 30-North (Lincoln Highway) and U.S. 30-South (Harding Highway) is also told in A History and Road Guide of the Lincoln Highway in Ohio, which can be read elsewhere at this web site. Galion, Marion (U.S. President Warren G. Harding’s home town), and Lima (OLHL President Mike Buettner’s home town) are the only known locations where the Harding name is still attached to this route—Harding Way in Galion; Harding Highway in Marion and Marion County; and Harding Highway again in Lima and Allen County.

16. Harrison Trail
I have this trail on a 1922 auto trails map as being between Portsmouth and Port Clinton, making it one of the longest auto trails entirely within the borders of Ohio. Other cities on the route were Chillicothe, Circleville, Columbus, Delaware, Marion, Upper Sandusky, Tiffin, and Fremont. Thus, the trail was later followed by early versions of U.S. 23 and State Route 53. However, this trail may have been superseded, at least in part, by the Scioto Trail (see #30 below).

17. Hoosier Highway
This is a significant regional highway that clips the northwest corner of Ohio. Bryan is the only Ohio county seat on the route, which had termini in Evansville, Indiana and Detroit, Michigan. In Ohio, parts of today’s State Route 2 and U.S. Route 127 resemble the zigzags of this meandering highway.

18. Hoosier Dixie Highway
This is another regional trail that barely makes it onto the Ohio map. Not surprisingly, most of the trail is in Indiana, with a northern terminus at Goshen. It entered Ohio near Harrison and had a southern terminus at Cincinnati, probably following an early version of U.S. Route 52. It is unclear whether this trail was considered an element of the Dixie Highway system, but one way or another, it was likely conceived as a feeder route that would meet the Ohio branch of the Dixie Highway at Cincinnati. Warsaw, Marion, Anderson, and New Castle were Indiana cities on the route.

19. Hub Highway
This is one of the shortest trails I have found on my 1922 auto trails map of Ohio. Its endpoints were at Dayton and Chillicothe, with Xenia and Washington C.H. as intermediate cities.

20. Huntington-Manitou-Culver Trail
Of all the trails in this list of forty, this may be the ultimate example of the auto trail excess that led to government intervention and road numbering. Huntington is a county seat in Indiana, Manitou is a lake near the town of Rochester, and Culver is a small village most noted for a nearby military academy.  For whatever reason, this unlikely route was extended into Ohio, terminating in Lima (of all places, the home town of this writer). In the 1920s, the roads west of Lima on which this trail was marked were so nondescript that they were never part of any state highway numbering system. However, the boosters of the trail did manage to come up with a pretty interesting sign.

21. Industrial Way
Not surprisingly, this was a trail through the heart of the Steel Valley, connecting Cleveland and Pittsburgh with a convoluted course through Ravenna, Warren, and Youngstown. In fact, the course was so convoluted that I am not even going to attempt to retrace it with the numbered routes of today!

22. Lakes to Ocean Highway
Dave Schul’s web site has this highway in his list of national auto trails. It does not appear on any map in my limited collection. Endpoints are given as Cleveland and Tampa. There are no intermediate cities listed. I have no graphics for the sign of this highway.

23. LINCOLN HIGHWAY
For a comprehensive story about the Lincoln Highway in Ohio, read A History and Road Guide of the Lincoln Highway in Ohio, which is the featured article on this web site.

24. Marion-Kenton Trail
This short trail would have been the earliest original part of the Harding Highway (see #15 above). Its western terminus was at Lima; its eastern terminus appears to be north of Mt. Gilead at an intersection with the 2-C Highway. Namesake cities Marion and Kenton were the only other county seats on the route, which actually became part of the original U.S. 30 in 1926 before the federal government compromised by renumbering it as U.S. 30-South in 1931.

25. Muncie-Lima-Fremont Trail
This is the only auto trail having my home town of Lima as part of the name. This is an interesting mix of stair steps and diagonals between Muncie, Indiana and Fremont, Ohio that essentially displaced passenger traffic on the old Lake Erie and Western Railroad, which was unfavorably derided as the “Leave Early and Walk.” Other county seats on the route were Portland (Indiana), Celina, Lima, and Findlay. This is another route whose boosters came up with an interesting symbol sign without the tried and true tricolor stripes.

26. The National Old Trails Road
An article on the history of this road in Ohio appears elsewhere on this web site.

27. Ohio-Indiana-Michigan Way
This is another route that reached Cincinnati after meandering through Indiana—crossing the border near Hamilton. In Indiana, the route passed through Richmond, Winchester, Portland, Decatur, Fort Wayne, Kendallville, and Lagrange before entering Michigan. This compares well to the route of U.S. 27 of today.

28. The Pikes Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway
A brief article on the history of this road in Ohio appears elsewhere on this web site.

29. Rose Trail
This is a nicely linear trail that connects a string of five county seats in Ohio—Springfield, Urbana, Bellefontaine, Kenton, and Findlay. The endpoint cities of Springfield (National Old Trails Road) and Findlay (Dixie Highway) were also waypoints on two of the most important transcontinental routes. This same route is followed today by U.S. Route 68.

30. Scioto Trail
This trail appears to be a late addition to the auto trails map of Ohio. It does not appear on either my 1922 map or my 1926 map, but it is listed on Dave Schul’s auto trails web site. However, Dave has the route going only from Portsmouth to Chillicothe. By comparison, the Scioto Trail is mentioned both by name and by numbers (U.S. Route 23 and State Route 4) in a 1927 book published in part by the Ohio Department of Highways. It is mentioned as one of three principal north-south traffic routes in the state—the others being the Dixie Highway (U.S. Route 25) and the Cleveland-Marietta Road (originally parts of U.S. Route 21 and State Route 8). The Cleveland-Marietta Road—apparently a name acquired by continuous use—does not seem to be an auto trail in the same sense as those in this list. Based on the ODH description, the endpoint cities of the Scioto Trail were Portsmouth and Sandusky. Intermediate county seats were Waverly, Chillicothe, Circleville, Columbus, Delaware, Marion, and Bucyrus. The Harrison Trail (see #16 above) had followed this same path as far north as Marion before diverging to Port Clinton. For some odd reason, the arrow-straight course of State Route 4 beyond Marion had never been previously marked as a named trail—despite its ancient and colorful history as the Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike, an early state road dating back to 1827.

31. Sherman-Sheridan Trail
Bearing the names of two Civil War generals from Ohio, this short trail connected Zanesville and Circleville. Lancaster (where Sherman was born) and Somerset (where Sheridan made his home) were the important waypoints on this route, which today is closely followed by U.S. Route 22.

32. Shore Road
This trail along Lake Erie may have predated the Yellowstone Trail, which was marked on much of this same path in 1919. The terminal cities for the Shore Road were Fremont and Cleveland, with Sandusky as an intermediate point. Oddly, two different roads between Fremont and Sandusky are labeled as the Shore Road on my 1922 auto trails map, perhaps in an effort to gain some independence from the Yellowstone Trail. Today this route can generally be traced by following the original paths of U.S. 6—which after the end of the auto trails era, gained a memorial name of its own as the Grand Army of the Republic Highway.

Andover, Ohio

33. Tecumseh Trail
This short trail was named for the great chief of the Shawnee Indians who was such a major historical figure in this region. Its endpoints were at Jackson, Michigan and Toledo. In Michigan, much of this route would now be followed by U.S. Route 223. In the Toledo area, the route would now be generally followed by the diagonal courses of Monroe Street and State Route 51.

34. Terre Haute-Columbus-Cincinnati Trail
This is another trail which leaves Cincinnati along the north side of the Ohio River on its way to Indiana. Before terminating at Terre Haute, this route probably passed through the Indiana cities of Greensburg, Columbus, and Bloomington. If so, this likely was a better auto trail than many others, because Indiana’s State Route 46 follows much of that same path today.

35. Toledo-Angola-Goshen Trail
This short trail likely served as a short-cut between two earlier transcontinental routes, with endpoints at Toledo (Yellowstone Trail) and Goshen, Indiana (Lincoln Highway). It would also have also offered a shorter option than the Toledo-Chicago Pike (see below). Most of the Toledo-Angola-Goshen Trail became the original route of U.S. Route 20, so there was some wisdom in the development of this trail location. Even today, U.S. 20 is a fine road through small villages in northwestern Ohio, and a passive toll-free alternative to the Ohio Turnpike.

36. Toledo-Chicago Pike
A route that may have predated the Toledo-Angola-Goshen Trail on better roads at the time of its inception, the Toledo-Chicago Pike passed through Wauseon and Bryan before entering Indiana. This route became the original route of Ohio State Route 2, and was virtually overlapped by the Yellowstone Trail between Toledo and Bryan. I have no information on the course of this route across Indiana, but it likely resembles the route of U.S. 6.

37. Toledo-Cleveland-Buffalo Trail
This route seems to be the eastern complement of the two trails immediately above. However, at some point, it appears that this trail was combined with the Toledo-Chicago Pike (see above) to form the Buffalo-Chicago Trail (see #11 in this list). Between Toledo and Cleveland, the subject trail passed through Fremont, Norwalk, and Elyria, on a course which became the original route of U.S. 20. East of Cleveland, the route was essentially overlapped by the Yellowstone Trail, and was also generally followed by the original route of U.S. 20.

Old US 20 near Geneva, Ohio.

38. VICTORY HIGHWAY
According to Frank X. Brusca (www.route40.net), “the Victory Highway was established following World War I as a memorial to those who fought and died in that conflict.” For some reason, Brusca does not have the route as a transcontinental route—giving Kansas City and San Francisco as endpoints. This may have been based on the limits of a great Mohawk-Hobbs Guide that he has reproduced for the site. However, other evidence indicates that the route had its eastern terminus at New York City. This conflicting evidence may be explained by the fact that the eastern half of the Victory Highway almost perfectly overlapped the National Old Trails Road (see #26 in this list), which had the senior identity and a route guide of its own. Thus, a similar guide for the eastern half of the Victory Highway would have been redundant. The Victory Highway had a more independent alignment in the West—especially in Utah and Nevada—where its struggles to establish a route are reminiscent of those of the Lincoln Highway. Today, the route of the Victory Highway can be traced by following the original courses of U.S. 40—not only in Ohio, but generally for the length of its path. Please see the referenced web site for a graphic of the Victory Highway sign.

39. Wayne Highway
General “Mad Anthony” Wayne led the American victory in the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794), which led to the signing of the Greenville Treaty (1795). By this treaty, the Indians ceded the land that makes up most of Ohio, plus parts of Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois. This auto trail passed through much of the same area as General Wayne’s armies, and a string of forts erected under his leadership is recalled by names on the maps of today (Fort Recovery and Fort Jefferson are examples). Many historical markers in this corridor bear the symbol of the Anthony Wayne Parkway, but based on their divergent locations, the parkway doesn’t seem to follow one particular route like the Wayne Highway. The Wayne Highway had endpoints in Cincinnati and Jackson, Michigan, and passed through seven county seats in Ohio—Hamilton, Eaton, Greenville, Celina, Van Wert, Paulding, and Bryan. The original trail would have been marked as State Route 9 in 1923 (and thus it would also have had a name sign in the post assembly), but after some early extensions to the federal system, it became U.S. Route 127.

40. The Yellowstone Trail
A brief article on the history of this road in Ohio appears elsewhere on this web site.

NAMED AUTOMOBILE TRAILS IN OHIO
PART THREE—MAP REFERENCES

In compiling the list above, I have generally studied four auto trails maps in my limited collection, all of which were published at the peak of auto trails activities in the 1920s:

1. A partial map of Ohio dated 1921 and published by Rand McNally. It appears that this map is one part of a set, being labeled as “District 4” and including only parts of several states—such as the east two-thirds of Ohio and the west one-third of Pennsylvania. As I recall, my blueprint copy of the original map came to me through the courtesy of OLHL founder Esther Oyster. This hard-to-read map (because of scale) shows 21 auto trails in Ohio.

2. A 1924 Rand McNally map which I found in the collections of the Ohio Historical Society in Columbus, Ohio. This is the key map in my collection, because it shows 31 auto trails in Ohio—more than any other map. I have this map in the form of two microfilm images, which I can take to the local library for viewing and partial printing.

3. A 1926 Rand McNally auto trails map of Ohio which came to me through the courtesy of Abe Yalom. Abe kindly let me borrow his original long enough to make 11”x17” excerpt copies of this map, plus the wonderful color cover. Only 14 auto trails appear on this map, but several appear for the first time here.

4. A 1927 Automobile Blue Book map which shows five named trails in Ohio which were also transcontinental routes. The map is drawn at a larger scale than the Rand McNally map, making it a very useful tool for tracing the alignments of both the trails and the early numbered highways. This map also came to me from Esther Oyster, in the form of 11”x17” excerpt copies.

The only other major reference that I have specific to the auto trails in Ohio is Dave Schul’s web site.

I should also mention that during my several years of research which focused on the subject of the Lincoln Highway, I also received copies of interesting maps or road guide excerpts from renowned highway historians and collectors such as Brian Butko, Dave Cole, Russell Rein, and Mike Weigler. Similarly, the late Hal Meeks is to be remembered for providing me much of the information that I have about the Yellowstone Trail, plus other named trails in Indiana.

Given the limited collection on which this named auto trails work is based, it is very likely that the descriptions for the above routes may have other variations in other years. It is also very likely that there is some obscure or short-lived trail that is not in this list of forty. Thus, if you have an auto trails map for Ohio (or Indiana, in some cases) which shows a named route with either a variation not described here, or some route not listed here, please consider making a hard copy reproduction of same so that this work can become more comprehensive. Please send copied materials to this writer at:

Mike Buettner
c/o Kohli & Kaliher Associates, Inc.
2244 Baton Rouge Avenue
Lima, Ohio 45805

Your contribution will be greatly appreciated and appropriately credited. Please know that no additions or revisions will be made to this text without a map or guide reference. It is my experience that no modern text contains information as reliable as the lines and symbols of the original maps and road guides.

IN SEARCH OF...
U.S. ROUTE 50 IN OHIO

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October 2009

 Part One—Chronology 
November 18, 1825

            A report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Bureau of Public Roads was approved on this date by the Secretary of Agriculture.  Many maps which are dated 1926 show the tentative routes of the proposed federal highway system, including the Ohio Department of Highways (ODH) map of that year.

            In this tentative plan, U.S. Route 50 was a route from Annapolis, Maryland to Wadsworth, Nevada (near Reno).  For nearly all its journey across Ohio, the federal route followed Main Market Route Number Five across the southern counties, entering the state at Belpre (opposite Parkersburg, West Virginia) and then bearing west toward Cincinnati.  When named auto trails began to appear on the maps in the late 1910s, this main market route also became the route of the Cincinnati-Parkersburg Trail.

            After 1923, identities such as main market routes and named auto trails would fade into history as a result of Ohio's new state highway numbering system.  Were it not for revisions forced by the duplication of numbers from both the federal and interstate highway systems, the original Ohio system would strongly resemble the map of today.

November 11, 1926

            The American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) accepts a modified plan for the first federal highway system.  In its original form, U.S. 50 was a route of 2856 miles from Annapolis, Maryland to Sacramento, California.  It superceded a combination of several state routes in Ohio:  State Route 7 from Belpre to Coolville; State Route 144 from Coolville to Athens; State Route 26 from Athens to Milford; State Route 27 from Milford to Cincinnati; and State Route 7 (again) from Cincinnati to the Indiana border.

            It is interesting to note that the four major east-west federal highways which crossed Ohio all followed existing main market routes.  As described above, the route of U.S. 50 was basically a new designation for Ohio's Main Market Route Number Five.  The route of U.S. 40 followed Main Market Route Number Four, which in turn was traced by the National Old Trails Road.  The route of U.S. 30 followed Main Market Route Number Three, and was generally the equivalent of the Lincoln Highway.  Finally, the route of U.S. 20 followed Main Market Route Number One, which also compared well to both the Chicago-Buffalo Road and parts of the Yellowstone Trail.

1929 to 1934

            From 1929 to 1934, the official Ohio highway maps show a split in the route of U.S. 50 in the area of the Ohio River.  Between Ellenboro, West Virginia and Athens, Ohio, the federal route was divided into U.S. 50-North (via Newport, Marietta, and Amesville) and U.S. 50-South (via Belpre and Coolville).  The new northern route was longer by only four miles (73 miles versus 69 miles) and established a significant junction in Marietta with the important north-south route of U.S. 21, which had a terminus in Cleveland.

1935 to 1975

            In 1935, the route which had been U.S. 50-North was renumbered as U.S. 50-A.  This alternate designation appeared on the Ohio maps through 1975.  On the 1976 map, U.S. 50-A was replaced by State Route 550.  It seems that during the 1970s, the state highway department made a conscious effort to eliminate suffixed numberings.  That was also the same decade when U.S. 30-South was renumbered as State Route 309.  However, U.S. 20-A does still survive in northwest Ohio.

            Also in 1935, the route which had been U.S. 50-South reassumed its original designation as U.S. 50.  However, unlike today's State Route 550—which exhaustingly meanders through the Appalachian Foothills of Washington County and Athens County—much of U.S. 50 has found its way to new and modernized alignments that feature multiple lanes and more generous geometry.

1935 to 1973

            In virtually the same time period that U.S. 50 had an alternate route through Marietta, it also had an official bypass route around Cincinnati.  This bypass route overlapped sections of State Route 126 and State Route 128 between Milford and Cleves, tracing a semi-circle of a dozen suburban locations around Cincinnati.  Resources give the bypass a length of 29 miles, which is not that much longer than the route through downtown Cincinnati.  However, on paper it sure looks to be a tediously long way to go around town.  By 1974, enough of the interstate highway system had been built in the Cincinnati metroplex to render obsolete the bypass version of U.S. 50.

1969 to 1985

            On the 1969 map of Ohio, an ominous double-dashed line is shown across the southern counties east of Cincinnati.  This would become the route of Ohio's Appalachian Highway—a thoroughfare that was conceived with the idea of bringing development to economically challenged areas in southern Ohio and northern West Virginia.  The endpoint cities of the Appalachian Highway are Cincinnati and Clarksburg, West Virginia.

In Ohio, the route of the Appalachian Highway is now entirely marked as State Route 32, and overlaps U.S. 50 between Belpre and Albany (in western Athens County).  Although the economic successes that were projected in this new highway corridor remain a point of contention, it is not arguable that the four-lane path of the Appalachian Highway has taken significant long-distance traffic away from the route of U.S. 50.  By 1985, most of the Appalachian Highway in Ohio had been completed, with only a new crossing at the Ohio River still on the drawing board.

June 13, 2008 and Present

            On June 13, 2008, the Cincinnati to Clarksburg corridor of the Appalachian Highway is finally completed with the opening of the impressive Blennerhasset Island Bridge.  The bridge takes its name from a historic island in the Ohio River that introduced not a small bit of controversy to the project.  Three piers were placed on the island, but their placement resulted in a far less expensive option than that of suspending a bridge over the island.  Still, the 4009-foot bridge over the Ohio River was the costliest highway span ever built in West Virginia.  It includes an attractive “network tied-arch span” of 878.5 feet that is the longest of its kind in the United States.  The finished bridge also set new design standards for its use of high-performance structural steel. 

According to a U.S. 50 web site created earlier in this decade, the federal route covered 3073 miles between Ocean City, Maryland and Sacramento, California.  This included 209 miles in Ohio, a number that would now be decreased by a few miles with the opening of the new bridge.  At its maximum length, the route was reportedly over 3200 miles long, with a western terminus at San Francisco.  In much of Nevada and California, the route of the Lincoln Highway became the route of U.S. 50—including that notorious stretch in Nevada known as "The World's Loneliest Highway."

            In Ohio, U.S. 50 is shown on the current map as a multi-lane divided highway between Belpre and Albany, where it is overlapped by the Appalachian Highway.  Between Albany and Cincinnati, the only other location where U.S. 50 is similarly modernized is where it joins U.S. 35 at Chillicothe.  From Cincinnati to the Indiana state line, the current Ohio map again shows the route as a multi-lane divided highway.  The remainder of the route is generally a two-lane rural route with the usual improvements to grades and curves that would be typical in the 1940s and 1950s.

 

Part Two--
Geography, Geology, and Geometry

Parkersburg, West Virginia to Belpre, Ohio

            Before the opening of the Blennerhasset Island Bridge in June 2008, the route of U.S. 50 crossed the Ohio River and entered the Buckeye State on a bridge that was opened in the late 1970s.  It replaced a cable suspension bridge that was built in the 1910s and demolished in 1980.  Next to this location is a remarkable railroad bridge that dates back to 1871.

            Upstream from the parallel bridges is the Memorial Bridge, which was opened in 1954.  In the early plans for the Appalachian Highway, the Memorial Bridge was to be paired with another later bridge that together would line up well with the present four lanes of State Route 7.  However, an entirely different plan was seen to its completion when the Blennerhasset Island Bridge was built five miles downstream.

Belpre to Athens

            Belpre is one of the oldest settlements in Ohio, dating back to 1789.  The name is an anglicized rendering of belle pré, which in French means "beautiful meadow."  Tracing the original route of U.S. 50 through Belpre has not been easy, because different routes have existed at different times.  Prior to the opening of the four-lane route that U.S. 50 once shared with State Route 7 from the 1960s through June 2008, a two-lane alignment was likely in use at what is now marked either as State Route 618 or Washington Boulevard.  Because this alignment is not indicated on a 1935 county map that was prepared by the state highway department, it does not appear to be an original part of U.S. 50.  What does show up on the 1935 map is a route which follows roadways now named as Maple Street, Campus Drive, and Putnam Howe Drive, but even that version may not be the original route of 1926.  Based on the odometer charts of the 1920 Automobile Blue Book, that first version of U.S. 50 route may have been at Blennerhasset Avenue, plus one block of Main Street.

Click to view.  In 1940, the State Highway Department prepared a "General Highway Map" for each of Ohio's eighty-eight counties. This excerpt from the map of Washington County shows the route of U.S. 50 (highlighted in pink) west of Belpre, including some very irregular alignment north of the town of Little Hocking. Parts of this old alignment survive today as local road. 

West of Belpre, State Route 618 passes under the new bridge and merges into the four-lane highway which carries U.S. 50 and other numbered state routes.  A broken road marked on the county map as Township Road 212 appears to fit the alignment of the original federal route through this area, as does State Route 124 through the community of Little Hocking.  Other parts of that woefully winding early road have been obliterated by the construction of the smooth curves and tangents of the present federal route.  One mile south of Little Hocking, the early route of U.S. 50 would have turned southwesterly toward Athens County on a road now marked either as County Road 84 or Hocking Road.

            In Athens County, the original route meanders with a road now marked as Belpre Pike, passing through the communities of Torch and Coolville.  At Coolville, the route followed Main Street (a.k.a. County Road 56) through the town, which now dead-ends before reaching the freeway.  The present route of U.S. 50 can be rejoined just west of Coolville.  According to my collection of official Ohio highway maps, the four-lane route between Belpre to Coolville was completed in the 1960s.

Click to view.  This is an excerpt from the "1969 Official Ohio Highway Map." The route of U.S. 50 is highlighted as a pink line across the middle of the sheet. The proposed route of the Appalachian Highway is highlighted as a green line across the bottom left of the sheet. Another highway of interest (but not highlighted) is an "Alternate U.S. 50" route between Marietta and Athens. Although the economic successes that were projected in the corridor of the Appalachian Highway remain a point of contention, it is not arguable that its four-lane path has taken significant long-distance travel away from the route of U.S. 50. 

At an interchange just southwest of Coolville, State Route 7 diverges southwesterly toward Pomeroy, while U.S. 50 and State Route 32 together follow the Appalachian Highway westerly toward Athens.  Looking at the 1935 map of Athens County, it nearly drops my jaw to see how crooked the route used to be as it crossed the hills to go from one stream valley to the next.  I am guessing that a new two-lane highway designed to eliminate sharp curves and turns was first built during the 1940s or 1950s.  However, it appears that this part of the route did not become a divided highway until additional lanes were added in the late 1990s.

            There are several locations between Coolville and Athens where short bits and pieces of old roadways can still be recovered.  Two miles west of the interchange area, a remnant now marked as Township Highway 573 makes a loop on the south side of the present road.  Just past the west end of that loop, a small part of Township Highway 117 survives from the original alignment—also on the south side of the road.  Another mile beyond that, a parallel pavement marked either as Roadside Park Road or Township Road 640—again on the south side of the road—is another remnant of the first version of U.S. 50.  From here, the path of the original road crosses to the opposite side, with Chapman Road (TH 570B), Jarvis Road (TH 570), and Potter Road (CR 66) all being parts of the original route.

I have long been fascinated, if not amused, by the attention that the highway department has given to roadside parks in Ohio.  Such pride was shown in the construction of the first rest areas that examples are pictured on the covers of both the 1947 and 1949 state highway map.  Over 200 red triangle symbols (still the standard symbol on the map of today) appeared on the 1947 edition, including a symbol for the site at Roadside Park Road.  At the peak period during the 1950s and 1960s, eight such parks were located along U.S. 50, and some of the upgraded locations (potable water; flush toilets) remain today.  Those with a keen eye for this genre of roadside architecture may still be able to discover the occasional brick boundary markers and sign bases, or perhaps the canopy for an old well pump at sites that have been abandoned.

At Guysville, a newer bridge and sweeping curve now take the route away from the small community that is nestled on the banks of the Hocking River.  The 1935 county map seems to indicate that the original route came northerly into the middle of the town before making a right angle turn to the west.  This is one of several areas over the course of this tour where having a map with a larger scale would be quite beneficial.  It would be an interesting adventure to find where the road first crossed the river.

Another area where a bigger map would be helpful is in the vicinity of Canaanville. To my surprise, the roadway of the 1920s and 1930s actually crossed and re-crossed the railroad at Canaanville, which means that an old snippet of macadam may be lying in the weeds on the opposite side of the tracks, quietly waiting for discovery.  More easily discovered is a mile-long path now marked as Canaanville Hills Road—which, unless it was built as a frontage road, may also have been a part of the old route.  Another remnant that is more certainly a part of the early highway is McAfee Road (TH 605), which is at the bend in the road just northwest of Canaanville.

Unfortunately, the typically detailed 1927 road guide book published by the Cleveland Automobile Club has an overly simplified chart for this part of U.S. 50, merely listing waypoints and mileages.  That simplification makes it more difficult to trace the original route.  However, the 1922 Green Book (which predates the federal designation by four years) has a comparatively detailed set of instructions for tracing the route from Coolville to Athens:

16.9      Coolville.

17.3      Keep to left.

21.9      Bear to right at three corners.

23.0      Straight through four corners.

28.0      Guysville.  Cross railroad and turn left at top of grade.

30.4      Church on right.

32.4      Canaanville.

32.6      Railroad.

32.9      Railroad.

34.5      Bridge….

39.4      Athens, at Court House

            Four miles east of Athens, the original path of U.S. 50 splits from a newer bypass route and follows an extension of State Street into town.  Several years later, I can no longer recall which road I traveled when I last passed through here, but I do recall an unaesthetic stretch of highway somewhere in this area that was especially blighted by a concrete barrier between the four-lane freeway and a frontage road which may have been part of the original route.  The bypass alignment east of Athens shows up for the first time on the Ohio map of 1977.

            The earliest versions of the federal route apparently curved into downtown Athens by following State Street to Court Street.  Looking at current map sources, State Street now seems a bit disjointed.  Thus, parts of other streets may also need to be negotiated today.  After passing through downtown on Court Street (which is now one way northbound), the route jogged one block on President Street before resuming south of Congress Street (which is now one way southbound).  An Ohio University alumnus on our surveying staff tells me that President Street is so named because it is the location of the home of the university president.

After examining the early geologic map for this area, I am very surprised at how small the city of Athens seems to be.  The 1920 Blue Book gives the population of the town as 5463.  The 2005 Rand McNally Road Atlas has the number at 21,545.  I am guessing that this figure includes students at a much larger Ohio University, but I am also guessing that the city has grown as the campus has grown.

Ohio University was founded in 1804, one year after Ohio was granted statehood.  The original name of the school was American Western University.  It is not only the oldest university in Ohio (it predates the founding of Ohio State University by sixty-six years), it is also the oldest university in the five states which make up the old Northwest Territory.  Its location at Athens was chosen because it was directly situated between Marietta and Chillicothe (the original capital of Ohio), two of the most important cities of that era.

Athens to McArthur

            South of downtown Athens, the original route of U.S. 50 follows Richland Avenue through a new part of the university campus, and then passes below the present bypass route shared here by State Route 32, U.S. 33, and U.S. 50.  Like the segment east of Athens, the bypass route appears to have been opened in the late 1970s.  At a complex interchange just south of the underpass, U.S. 33 diverges southeasterly toward Pomeroy while the other two routes—and the route of the Appalachian Highway—turn southwesterly toward Albany.  Richland Avenue meets Albany Road in the area of this same interchange.

Click maps to view.  In the early 1900s, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the State of Ohio in preparing a series of geologic sheets which covered the entire state. These map excerpts are from the Wilkesville quadrangle sheet and covers the eastern townships of Vinton County. Although this 1908 map predates the original routing of U.S. 50 by almost twenty years, the early wagon roads that would form the backbone of the original route are indicated. The red line indicates the path of the present route, and is typical of a newer generation of highways that were built in the middle decades of the past century. 

Between the above diversion point and the town of Albany, there again are several miles of Athens County roadways that survive from the original route.  One part of this old route is marked on the map as either County Road 17A or Fisher Road, which appropriately passes through the community of Fisher.  Another part of the old route passes through the similarly small location of Hebbardsville, on roads now marked as Hebbardsville Road (County Road 19) and Enlow Road (County Road 19A).

Southwest of Athens, I am guessing that the original two lanes of the present route of U.S. 50 date back to the mid-1950s, because this is the first time that the red federal line on the Ohio map misses Hebbardsville.  I am also guessing that a "future location" of U.S. 50 that is shown on the state highway map of 1974 was never constructed.  Instead, it appears that two additional lanes were merely built alongside the mid-1950s project at some time around 1990.

            Through Albany, the original route of U.S. 50 is marked as Washington Road.  Albany was bypassed in about 1970 with one of the earliest improvements in the corridor of the Appalachian Highway.  Two miles southwest of Albany, the route of U.S. 50 diverges from the Appalachian Highway (and State Route 32) and bears west toward McArthur and Vinton County.  Washington Road now serves as a frontage road and can be followed from Albany for two miles to its terminus opposite the Ohio University Airport alongside U.S. 50.

For the roadfan who most enjoys highway archaeology, the next part of the U.S. 50 tour across southern Ohio may prove to be the highlight.  By comparing the geologic maps of the 1910s to the equivalent maps published in the 1950s, it is soon evident that the entire highway was virtually rebuilt in the eastern half of Vinton County.  As a result, there are many segments of the original alignment which survive as parallels on the maps of today.  It is likely that there are even some small isolated segments of abandoned blacktop lying in wait in the nearby weeds.  This is one of the most remote parts of Ohio, and the 1920 Automobile Blue Book failed to chart a single route that included any part of Vinton County, leaving an ominous white hole on their schematic map of routes.

            Two miles southwest of Albany, U.S. 50 bears west as it diverges from State Route 32 and the Appalachian Highway.  Another two miles from this point, the highway leaves Athens County and enters Vinton County.  Almost immediately, there is an old road remnant to discover.  On the northeast side of the present highway is a roadway now shown either as Brooks Road or Township Highway 22.  It is about one mile in length and terminates at the old Weaver Chapel, a location which was sometimes called for as an odometer landmark in the early auto guides.  A cemetery can be found at this location today.

About one mile west of Weaver Chapel is the location of Bolins Mill.  Another road remnant, although quite short, is located here on the west side of a waterway and the north side of the road.  This snippet of the old route is appropriately named Bolins Mill Road but is also shown on some maps as Township Highway 25.  When it is shown, it appears as a road with no outlet.

Three miles west of Bolins Mill is the location of the old Putnam Chapel.  Like the Weaver Chapel, this location was sometimes called for as an odometer landmark, and once again, a cemetery can still be found here.  At Putnam Chapel, an old road designated either as County Highway 30 or perhaps Old State Road meanders with the topography sharply away from U.S. 50.  It returns to meet the present highway about one mile west from its point of departure.

Two miles west of Putnam Chapel is the small town of Prattsville.  The old road is still apparent here as it passes through the community, and then continues westerly through another mile of slight meanders.  The roadway may be marked either as County Highway 7A or as Prattsville Road.  At the west end of Prattsville Road, the original road crosses from the south side to the north side of present-day U.S. 50.  This continuing part of the old roadway may be marked either as County Highway 7 or as Old McArthur Road.  One and one-half miles westerly from the crossing point, the western terminus of this remnant meets U.S. 50 near the location of an overpassing railroad.  This grade separation could very well be a rare instance in eastern Vinton County where the original alignment and the present alignment are at the same location.

Closer to the seat of justice at McArthur, there may be as many as three named roadways which previously carried the route of U.S. 50.  One such roadway is now known either as Pony Road or as Township Highway 12.  On the east edge of town, the earliest geologic map shows a sharper bend in the roadway alignment which could possibly be explained by tracing parts of South Street and Jane Drive.  Other than the common point at the railroad portal, perhaps the only part of the original alignment in the eastern half of Vinton County that has not been altered in some way—either horizontally (such as curve improvements) or vertically (such as grade changes)—is the several blocks of Main Street as it passes through McArthur.  Thus, this part of the U.S. 50 route is an excellent example of roadway improvements that were made on state highways in the middle decades of the past century.

McArthur to Chillicothe

West of McArthur, the Appalachian Foothills begin to flatten out, and the highway takes advantage of topography to minimize any gradient issues as it approaches Ross County.  Although this part of the route lacks the numerous old road remnants that prevailed in the larger hills east of McArthur, there still are roadway improvements in this section that are typical of such projects during the 1950s and 1960s.

Leaving McArthur on Main Street, the route of U.S. 50 runs with higher ground above the waters of Puncheon Fork.  Four miles beyond town, the highway veers southwest, dropping from the slight ridge line to meet the waters of Middle Fork.  After another four miles, the settlement of Allensville is reached.  Between McArthur and Allensville, the old geologic maps show three schoolhouses along the route of U.S. 50—Miller School, Papaw School, and Riley School.  Many buildings which once served as one-room schoolhouses remain in my part of Ohio, so it would be interesting to discover how many of these old landmarks still survive in this part of the state.

From Allensville to Ratcliffburg (about twelve miles west of McArthur), the highway meanders along the bends of Middle Fork.  Neither the geologic maps nor the internet maps show any hints of an old road remnant in this stretch of the road.  More than likely, most highway improvements that were made in a section like this were so close to the original alignment that all traces of the previous path have been obliterated by the construction of the newer road.

At Ratcliffburg, however, the highway department saw fit to build four miles of new parallel alignment before the route would leave Vinton County.  Thus, there is a nostalgic and scenic section of old road of equal length that is just north of the newer highway.  This old road remnant is marked either as County Highway 13A or as Old 50 Road, and appears to have been bypassed because it is more "built-up" (relatively speaking) than adjacent sections of the federal highway.

Although I have toured less than half the distance of U.S. 50 across Ohio (only from Marietta to Chillicothe), I do specifically recall this four-mile stretch of parallel roadways as a personal favorite.  The old geologic map shows Clark School on the north side of the road, at two miles southwest of Ratcliffburg.  The newer maps show three churches in this same stretch.  Based on the names of two of the churches, it appears that this area is locally known as Pleasant Valley.  I think the name fits quite well.

Just west of the junction point of the old road and the new road, U.S. 50 enters Ross County.  Two miles in, the route passes through the crossroads community of Londonderry, which lies in the morning shadows of an interesting landmark shown on the geologic maps as Point Lookout.  A similar prominence of landscape is four miles west of Londonderry and is known as Rattlesnake Knob.  Both features are on the north side of the highway.  At the first crossroads west of the knob (Lancaster Road and/or Jones Road), the old geologic map shows another local landmark known as Smith's Store.  This is the same location as a toll gate that appears on a township map in the 1875 Atlas of Ross County.

Nine miles into Ross County, the route of U.S. 50 meets the route of U.S. 35.  For whatever reason, U.S. 35 has been given much more consideration than U.S. 50 in the way of four-lane improvements.  Crossing the Ohio River just upstream from Gallipolis, the route of U.S. 35 bears northwesterly toward Chillicothe, Washington Court House, Xenia, and Dayton.  More than half of this mileage features four lanes of divided highway.  With the exception of the long section between Belpre and Albany, and a shorther section west of Cincinnati, most of the U.S. 50 route remains a two-lane road.  As stated in the opening paragraphs, the successive opening of long sections of the Appalachian Highway probably took away from the importance of the federal route.

Paired briefly, U.S. 50 and U.S. 35 cross the Scioto River and approach the southeast fringes of Chillicothe.  At the first interchange beyond the river bridge, the routes diverge.  Whereas U.S. 35 now bypasses the city, U.S. 50 traces much of its original path through the downtown area.  Today, the route through town is simply traced by following the federal shield signs that are posted along four streets—Eastern Avenue, Bridge Street, Main Street, and Western Avenue.  This strongly resembles the original route through downtown, which used Hickory Street and what is now Old Eastern Avenue prior to its relocation to Bridge Street.  The odd diagonal of Old Eastern Avenue occurs because it follows the historic path of the Ohio and Erie Canal.  An old county atlas shows this same street as Gallipolis Street.

For the tourist who truly has time to find joy in the journey, Chillicothe certainly makes for an excellent overnight stopping place.  In fact, there is so much to do here that multiple nights could be a possibility.  Chillicothe was the original location of Ohio's state capital, and not coincidentally, was also the home of Thomas Worthington, known as the "Father of Ohio Statehood."  The Ohio Historical Society has made a significant investment in restoring Worthington's "Adena" home, not to mention the construction of a new visitors’ center, and both are well worth the visit.  While there, travelers can walk to the overlook out from the Adena site to see the familiar view of the same adjacent hilltops and river valley which inspired the Great Seal of the State of Ohio.

Also of historic interest are sites which pertain to our Native American heritage.  North of Chillicothe is the Hopewell Culture National Historic Site, which has an interesting visitors’ center that helps understand the many earthworks that have been preserved or restored here.  Other sites with archaeological significance are nearby, as is the outdoor theater that has long been popular for showing the drama of the Shawnee chief "Tecumseh."

I was also impressed with the inviting appearance of downtown Chillicothe.  Many storefronts seem to have been restored for the type of specialty shopping that my wife would enjoy.  Most are within walking distance of each other.  To my surprise, I also learned that the city been the fifteen-year home of a minor league baseball team—the Chillicothe Paints (the team’s paint horse logo is quite sharp).  At a nearby motel, my family pulled more than a dozen brochures from the tourism rack.  We had good accommodations at this particular national nameplate, and will likely make Chillicothe a future destination in our travels across the state. 

Chillicothe to Hillsboro

In the western half of Ross County, the route of U.S. 50 is closely paired with the waterway known as Paint Creek.  One reference states that the name of the waterway is taken from the "ocherous" or yellowish soil of this area.  The mouth of the creek is below Chillicothe, not far from the previously referenced four-lane bridge over the Scioto River.  The headwaters enter the county just downstream from Paint Creek State Park.  That park will be just one of several points of interest along this section of the federal route.

Leaving Chillicothe on Western Avenue, U.S. 50 bends with the topography and meets Paint Creek several miles west of the city.  The first small town that is encountered is Bourneville (twelve miles west), reportedly named for Alexander Bourne, a prominent surveyor and civil engineer in Ohio history.  On the wall of my office hangs a reproduction of a map drawn by Bourne in 1820.  He collaborated on this map with John Kilbourne, another leading mapmaker, and the result was one of the finest early maps of Ohio—accurately showing county boundaries and Indian Reservations, plus selected topographic features.  It is considered to be the first map to show the newly created counties of northwest Ohio.

Sixteen miles west of Chillicothe is the Seip Earthworks State Memorial.  Excavations of a mound at this site during the 1920s revealed over 100 graves and thousands of artifacts, including about 18,000 freshwater pearl beads.  The discovery of so many beads is fascinating because it indicates that significant trading was done between the early inhabitants of this area and visitors from distant areas.  The Seip Earthworks is one of several Ohio Hopewell complexes in the Paint Creek Valley.  The site is adjacent to the appropriately named Paint Valley High School.

The town of Bainbridge is nineteen miles west of Chillicothe.  What jumps off the current state highway map at Bainbridge is the big red dot (point of interest symbol) for the “First Dental School Museum.”  On a hunch, I pulled my Neil Zurcher books off the shelf thinking I could learn more about this seemingly unique landmark (Neil made his name as the popular travel reporter for a Cleveland television station).  Sure enough, Neil reports that a medical doctor who settled in this area began teaching medical students the practice of dentistry, and in 1928 started the world’s first dental school.  In his Ohio Road Trips book (c.2006, Gray & Co., Publishers), Zurcher writes that upon seeing “a variety of antique dental instruments…my teeth hurt just looking at the primitive tools.”

Click to view.  A significant event in the history of American archaeology occurred in 1848 with the publication of Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis's classic Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley.  This landmark work is best known for its descriptions and surveys of over 300 mounds and earthworks, including this map of the Seip Earthworks in the Paint Creek Valley of western Ross County.  The "Road to Chillicothe" at the upper left of the map became the original route of U.S. 50.
 

For the next several miles beyond Bainbridge, a significant rebuild of the federal route has rendered at least two old road remnants.  The first remnant is at the site of an old roadside park (one of the original eight) on the north side of the road, about three miles west of Bainbridge.  At one time, the park was on the south side of the road.  The second remnant begins immediately after leaving Ross County and entering Highland County.  This particular remnant is known either as Old 50 Road or County Highway 89.  This meandering one-mile roadway is near a community known as The Point, which apparently takes its name from a landform that exists where Rocky Fork enters Paint Creek.

Paint Creek State Park and an associated wildlife area are both in the area of Old 50 Road.  An adjacent road known as Cave Road or Township Highway 259 was never part of U.S. 50, but leads southwesterly from The Point to another local place of interest formerly known as Seven Caves—only one mile from the main road.  The name was recently changed to Cave Canyon Nature Preserve, apparently to place more emphasis on hiking trails through a large wilderness area, and less emphasis on the caves (which may presently be off limits).  The preserve is reputed to have spectacular wildflower displays in April and early May, which would make this location an interesting diversion from the main road in all seasons of the year.

Four miles into Highland County, U.S. 50 passes through the small town of Rainsboro.  The town was platted in 1830 by a landowner named George Rains, who probably realized the potential for a good commercial location on the well-traveled pike.  At nine miles in, the route passes through an even smaller community, now shown on the map as Boston.  In the 1920 Automobile Blue Book, this same location is given as New Boston.  It would not be uncommon for several small communities in Ohio to have the same name, and in many cases duplication was avoided by adding or dropping a prefix such as "New" or "North."  This had to be a great help to the postal service in the days before the ZIP code was created.  Both of these communities are near the waters of Rocky Fork Lake and yet another state park.

At Hillsboro, about thirty-eight miles from Chillicothe, U.S. 50 enters the seat of justice for Highland County on Chillicothe Avenue.  That roadway soon angles onto Main Street, and follows that course all the way through a well situated downtown.  The courthouse in the center of the city is the oldest Ohio structure still in continuous use for that purpose, with original construction dating back to the 1830s.  The building combines Federal and Greek architectural elements, which is best explained by the theory that self-educated local contractors often blended their favorite methods into the construction of such landmark buildings.

As I trace the route of U.S. 50 down the route of Main Street in Hillsboro, I have begun to realize a trend.  In many of the municipalities that have street names, the route of U.S. 50 is on an east-to-west street named Main Street, and not on any north-to-south street.  Perhaps the most likely reason is that in this part of Ohio, Chillicothe would have been a prime destination at the time when the first roads were blazed through the old forests.  Thus, the most important street that was platted in towns like McArthur and Bainbridge and Hillsboro was the street that accommodated the road which directed pioneers to the original state capital.  In each of those cases, the road pointing to Chillicothe was platted as Main Street.

Hillsboro to Cincinnati

Entering the home stretch of this U.S. 50 tour across Ohio, two things stand out while reviewing the old maps west of Hillsboro.  The first notable feature is the straightness of the route, with two long tangents taking the route out of Highland County.  The second feature is the proximity of the route to an old interurban line which connected the same endpoint cities for this section.  Some of the time, the interurban shared the highway right-of-way, but in other places, it swung away from it to better follow the topography or to avoid built-up areas.  The property was known as the Cincinnati and Columbus Traction Company, hinting at the fact that their corporate ambitions to build as far east as Chillicothe or Columbus were never realized.  In the old auto guide books, the interurban line is called a “trolley” line—a nomenclature which is technically incorrect beyond the larger city systems which originated the more common name.

In the western half of Highland County, a variety of place names have appeared within the several maps and guides that I have gathered for the study of this route.  The current ODOT map shows the unincorporated locations of Hoagland, Fairview, Allensburg, and Dodsonville as waypoints.  The 1920 Automobile Blue Book adds Stringtown to a different list which does include Dodsonville but not the other three.  The first geologic map of this area is comprehensive in showing all these locations.  The inventory of the waypoints called for in the 1920 Blue Book, with their mileages from Chillicothe, would look like this:

Chillicothe         0.0

Bourneville         12.1

Bainbridge         19.2

Rainsboro          27.6

New Boston       32.4

Hillsboro            37.9

Salem               46.8

Dodsonville        49.4

Stringtown         51.4

Three miles beyond the small settlement of Dodsonville, U.S. 50 leaves Highland County and enters Brown County.  At 3.5 miles inside those borders, the route passes through Fayetteville, which is the first location beyond Hillsboro with any semblance of a street grid.  The federal route here is also designated as Pike Street—a rare reminder of the road’s early history as the Milford and Chillicothe Pike.  The 1920 Blue Book has a significant amount of text about Fayetteville, mentioning an academy for boys (St. Aloysius) that was in the town, plus a nearby convent school for girls that was two miles out of town (St. Martin).  Judging by the names, there seems to have been a large population of Catholics that settled in this part of Brown County.

Just west of Fayetteville, the route of U.S. 50 deflects southwesterly and maintains a rather straight set of courses to complete its brief passage through Brown County.  The only other named location in this segment is Vera Cruz, located at the junction with State Route 131.  Only eight miles after entering Brown County, the highway enters Clermont County.  Because the route traverses the northern reaches of both counties, U.S. 50 does not pass through the seat of justice of either (Georgetown in Brown County; Batavia in Clermont County).  All told, the route of U.S. 50 in Ohio passes through five county seats—Athens, McArthur, Chillicothe, Hillsboro, and Cincinnati.

Immediately after entering Clermont County, the route of U.S. 50 passes through the community of Marathon.  At four miles in, it bisects the settlement of Monterey.  Both locations were long ago served by the interurban between Hillsboro and Cincinnati, although in both cases, the tracks were diverted from the course of the auto road.  Marathon has a few blocks of a grid, but Monterey is merely a string of buildings fronting both sides of the road.  Both communities are still shown on the current Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) map, but the interurban tracks through these locations have been gone for eighty years.

The first town encountered in Clermont County that has more than a few blocks of a grid is Owensville.  The main crossroads of this small but incorporated village is three miles beyond Monterey (or seven miles beyond Marathon and the county line).  Like nearly every town that was platted on the early wagon road, the route of U.S. 50 is designated as Main Street within the corporate limits of Owensville.

Two miles west of Owensville, the bearings of the route are once again dictated by topography, rather than by a series of straight lines.  Here, the route of U.S. 50 begins eight miles of wild meanders before twisting into downtown Milford, the next incorporated town.  Although the Blue Book fails to list any waypoints between Owensville and Milford, the old geologic map identifies the locations of Stonelick and Perintown in the floodplain of the East Fork of the Little Miami River.  Only Perintown—originally known as Perin’s Mills—is still shown on the current ODOT map.

The route of U.S. 50 enters Milford on Lila Avenue, then angles onto Main Street at its junction with State Route 28.  The town received its name from the “mill” at the “ford” of the Little Miami River, which marked the first safe crossing place of the waterway north of the Ohio River.  Apparently, Milford had a more appealing sound than the original place name of Hageman’s Mills.  The same interurban line that was first encountered at Hillsboro once shared the right-of-way of Main Street through downtown Milford, and then accompanied the highway across a bridge over the Little Miami River.  The Little Miami is one of fifteen scenic rivers that has been designated in Ohio, and is the longest of those fifteen.  At this location, the waterway forms the boundary between Clermont County and Hamilton County.

One of my associates has ties to the Milford area, and tells me that this is truly a nice place to call home.  I have been informed that Milford has one of those small downtowns where specialty shops have become popular, and there are several parks and recreational locations nearby.  I am fascinated by the impressive system of bicycle paths in the southwestern counties of Ohio, and Milford is a prime location on at least one of those paths.  In summary, the Milford community appears to be one of many pearls on the necklace of suburbia that has surrounded Cincinnati since the completion of Interstate 275 in this area in the early 1970s.

On the opposite side of the Little Miami River from Milford is the village of Terrace Park.  This location appears to be an earlier type of suburban community that probably owes its original growth to the interurban, and not to the automobile.  The route of U.S. 50 through Terrace Park is designated Wooster Pike, and follows the scenic river downstream through the locations of Plainville, Mariemont, and Fairfax before entering the corporate limits of Cincinnati.

In Cincinnati, Wooster Pike becomes Columbia Parkway and continues its southwesterly course toward the Ohio River.  When the federal shield of U.S. 50 first showed up on the official Ohio Department of Highways map of 1926, it was shown at Eastern Avenue, which is basically one block closer to the Little Miami River.  I have yet to determine when the parkway was constructed to handle the increasing traffic.  In the Columbia neighborhood that is adjacent to the old airport, both roadways bend northwesterly to parallel the Ohio River, eventually straddling an active railroad property.

In this area of multiple lines along the Ohio River, U.S. 50 continues to follow Columbia Parkway, and Eastern Avenue is the route of U.S. 52.  The two federal routes meet today in a jumble of interchange ramps that connect them with Interstate 71 and Interstate 471.  Before the days of limited access highways, the routes of U.S. 50 and U.S. 52 would have entered the heart of downtown Cincinnati on Third Street, then turned north on Central Avenue.

Oddly, the Ohio River approach to Cincinnati is not the route charted in any of the early auto guide books that I have collected.  Both the 1920 Blue Book and the 1922 Green Book trace similar routes that seem to purposely travel through the urban areas of Cincinnati.  Both the guide books chart a course through what is now the village of Indian Hill (Indian Hill Road), and the absorbed communities of Madisonville (Madison Road), Oakley, and Evanston.  This early route would have eventually entered downtown Cincinnati by way of Gilbert Street and Seventh Street.  The Blue Book also charts a preferred route option that follows Wooster Pike through the Red Bank neighborhood before turning northwesterly with Linwood Avenue and Observatory Avenue to meet Madison Road.  Other references show a partially similar route that eventually winds it way through Eden Park.

Cincinnati to the Indiana State Line

The last segment of U.S. 50 in this tour of Ohio offers the greatest challenge for this author to trace the route on the oldest maps.  Most of the difficulty occurs where the route runs along the railroads—both steam and electric—with all paths being parallel with the Ohio River.  With so much black ink plotted in the same small corridor, it is not easy to decipher the multiple tightly woven lines.  Before we get to that dilemma, let us first trace the route as it leaves downtown.

Traveling westerly from the heart of Cincinnati, the 1926 Ohio Department of Highways map highlights Third Street, Central Avenue, and Eighth Street as the original route of U.S. 50.  Similar to the developments on the opposite side of downtown at Interstate 71, this alignment can no longer be followed because several blocks of Eighth Street were long ago lost to construct the maze of highway and interchange ramps for Interstate 75.  Today, the closest alternative to trace the original route would be to follow Ninth Street from downtown to the opposite side of the viaduct at Interstate 75, where the thoroughfare magically becomes Eighth Street despite only a small change of direction.

Click to view.  In 1940, the State Highway Department prepared a "General Highway Map" for each of Ohio's eighty-eight counties. This excerpt from the map of Hamilton County shows the route of U.S. 50 (highlighted in pink) from Cincinnati to the Indiana State Line, including a short-lived alignment through Eden Park (the serpentine line northeast of downtown). An early bypass alignment which predates the modern style of four-lane limited access highways is highlighted in yellow.

Eighth Street terminates at State Avenue, and here the original route of U.S. 50 turns south toward the river.  The original route meets the present route at River Road, which not only runs parallel with the Ohio River, but also parallel with the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.  At one time, there was also an interurban line running in this same corridor.  Much of the present course of U.S. 50 was apparently built on the abandoned right-of-way of the interurban, but with no adequate maps to resolve the matter, it has been difficult to determine exactly when and where this holds true.  For instance, in the neighborhoods of Sedamsville, Riverside, and Anderson Ferry, the original main road charted in the early automobile guides was Hillside Avenue.  I have yet to determine when the newer alignment of highway was opened on the River Road.

Based on odometer calls in the 1922 Green Book, it is possible that westbound travelers diverged from Hillside Avenue at the location of Anderson Ferry.  If the River Road existed west of Anderson Ferry in 1926, it likely would have carried the route of U.S. 50.  However, it would have also been possible for the route to continue with Hillside Avenue for another three miles to the community of Sayler Park.  In Sayler Park, the earliest main route appears to have been at what is now marked as Gracely Street.  Again through this area, it seems likely that River Road represents newer construction that was built on, or perhaps adjacent to, the route of the abandoned interurban line.  The same may hold true in Addyston, where Main Street likely predates the present highway.

In Addyston, the River Road nomenclature gives way to Three Rivers Parkway.  Based on my most detailed map of this area, Addyston seems to begin where Cincinnati ends.  It is interesting to note that several place names that were on the maps of the 1920s—such as Trautman, Sayler Park, and Fernbank—have long since disappeared, with each of the adjoining communities apparently annexed to the city of Cincinnati.  This renders a long string of Cincinnati borders which seems to dangle oddly from the outline of its other corporate limits.

After leaving Addyston, the Three Rivers Parkway immediately enters North Bend.  This village is named for a major bend in the Ohio River that marks the northernmost point of Kentucky.  North Bend is also noteworthy because it has ties to two presidents of the United States—William Henry Harrison (9th president) made his home here and is buried here, and his grandson Benjamin Harrison (23rd president) was born here.  In these parts, William Henry Harrison is a greater historical figure as a territorial governor and military general than as president (recall that he served only one month before his death).  However, it is significant to note that buckeye wood cabins and buckeye walking sticks became emblems of the elder Harrison’s political campaign (not to mention the familiar “Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too”), and would forever begin the link of the Buckeye nickname both to the citizens and to the state of Ohio.

Before the interurban line was abandoned through this particular area, the original route of U.S. 50 would have followed Miami Avenue through North Bend.  Upon entering the adjacent town of Cleves, it would have turned west across the railroad to eventually join up with what is now Miamiview Road.  That road can be reached by following brief segments of Mt. Nebo Road and Lower River Road.  Two miles beyond Cleves, the route would have crossed the Miami River at the location of the Lost Bridge, a place name on the 1919 geologic map which simply reaches out to grab the map reader.

The history of the Lost Bridge site was far more interesting than I could have expected.  A brief diversion to do some casual internet research was soon rewarded with a surprising wealth of good information.  The original Lost Bridge was an old covered wooden bridge that consisted of three spans.  Each span was 195 feet long, and was supported on stone piers and abutments.  After the superstructure was destroyed by a fire in 1903, it soon became apparent that a replacement structure was necessary.  A new bridge was built by 1909, and for a time was the longest single span bridge in existence, measuring 586 feet.  Sadly, that impressive bridge—like many others upstream—was no match for the Great Flood of March 1913, and the structure met its end as a mass of twisted iron and broken concrete in the bottom of the Miami River.

Obviously, another bridge was built.  When the route of U.S. 50 was first designated, it would cross the Miami River at this same location.  It followed what is now Lawrenceburg Road into Elizabethtown, where it would turn southwest toward Indiana (be sure to stop for a photo opportunity at the sandstone pillar on the north side of the road that serves as a state line marker).  The present route of U.S. 50 between Cleves and Elizabethtown does not show up on the official highway maps of Ohio until 1942, and again—as with so many other locations west of Cincinnati—it appears that the new roadway was built on the old interurban right-of-way.  Most interurban properties in this part of Ohio never recovered from the damages inflicted by the Great Flood, but their rights-of-way have proven valuable for a variety of later uses.  The widening of the highway to four lanes would occur in various phases, much of which was during the early 1950s.

Another route of significance between Cincinnati and the Indiana State Line is the highway now marked as State Route 264.  In the years before the federal route of U.S. 50 was designated, this may have been the best highway west of Cincinnati.  No numbered route existed on state highway maps in the corridor of U.S. 50 until the creation of the federal network in 1926.  For a brief time (from 1923 to 1926), what is now State Route 264 was designated as State Route 7—the familiar numbering for the same Ohio River Road that we briefly followed at the beginning of this tour near Belpre.  The State Route 264 designation came about in 1926, when State Route 7 was moved to the location of U.S. Route 50.  Eventually, the dual numbering at the federal route would be dropped, and today, State Route 7 terminates in Lawrence County, over 100 miles east of its earlier western terminus.  At one time, State Route 7 would have been the longest numbered route in Ohio.  That route still makes up much of the Ohio River Scenic Byway, one of five National Scenic Byways in Ohio.

Disclaimer

This tour of U.S. 50 is based on my review of various map sources and automobile guides, almost all of which have been referenced in the text.  Although I have driven that part of the route from Belpre to Chillicothe, and have visited Hillsboro and Cincinnati (coming from the north), in each case I was doing so as a traveler and not an explorer.  Thus, I was not specifically looking for all the landmarks and road remnants as I have now attempted to do from my office.  Because much contemporary information is based on internet research (such as current road names), please contact the author at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you have suggestions for corrections or improved explanations.